Selasa, 21 September 2010

Bungklang Bungkling: Tuna Tani (Petani Malang) oleh Wayan Juniartha.

Diambil dari kolom ‘Bungklang Bungkling’, ‘Tunu Tani’, di harian Bali Post, Minggu, 19 September 2010, oleh I Wayan Juniartha Diterjemahkan oleh Putu Semiada. 
 


 Tuna Tani (Petani Malang)
Jika ingin menjadi petani di Bali, apa saja modal yang mesti dimiliki?
“Modal pertama yang harus dimiliki adalah tidak memiliki rasa malu,” kata I Made Pici-Pici Gengsi.
Maklumlah jaman sekarang kebanyakan orang Bali malu dibilang miskin. Mereka tidak akan merasa malu jika kemana-mana menyetir mobil, memakai dasi, dompet dipenuhi kartu kredit dan uang yang banyak. Tapi kalau ke sana kemari masih memakai baju lusuh, memakai topi bambu, membawa arit sambil naik sepeda gayung, pastui mereka malu.
Jadi jika menjadi orang Bali tidak boleh miskin, tidak boleh malu. Supaya tidak kelihatan miskin, orang Bali berani menghabiskan milyaran Rupiah untuk upacara (mekarya), meskipun itu uang panas pinjaman dari bank. Agar kelihatan miskin, sampai pratima (kelengkapan upacara) pun dijual dijadikan uang supaya bisa membeli dasi, HP dan kredit mobil.
“Jika menjadi petani sudah pasti akan menjadi orang yang miskin. Artinya harus berani menahan rasa malu. Kalau aku, aku tidak janji mengambil pekerjaan seperti itu.”
Mereka semua mengangguk-angguk. Anaknya I Wayan Dangap-Dangap ingin sekali masuk Fakultas Pertanian. Oleh karena itulah I Wayan ingin mendapatkan informasi dari teman-temannya apa saja persyaratannya agar anaknya menjadi petani yang sukses.
“Modal kedua adalah harus berani berhutang,” kata I Made lagi.
Harga pupuk tidak pernah turun, belum lagi harga bibit, pestisida. Memang harga beras terus naik, tetapi yang mendapat keuntungan bukannya petani. Jika harga beras naik, yang mendapat keuntungan adalah pedagang beras dan importir beras.
“Jika menjadi petani tidak langsung mendapat hasilnya. Setelah tiga bulan baru mendapatkan hasil. Makanya harus mempunyai uang untuk membeli bibit, pupuk dan pestisida. Belum lagi urusan perut. Jika tiga bulan mengurus sawah, menunggu panen, apakah perut tidak perlu diisi juga?”
Oleh karena itu kebanyakan petani menjadi ‘nasabah setia’ LPD, BPR dan rentenir. Mereka menanam padi, namun meminjam uang agar bisa membeli beras.
“Ya kalau bisa panen, kalau seperti sekarang keadaannya, musim yang tidak jelas, akibatnya padinya menjadi puso, panen gagal, hutangnya bertambah.
Supaya bisa membayar bunga hutang, mesti meminjam lagi ke sana kemari. Akibatnya, jelas mereka menjadi semakin miskin, hutang menjadi bertumpuk-tumpuk.
“Jika menjadi petani sama hal nya seperti melestarikan kemiskinan.”
Hancur rasanya perasaan I Wayan memikirkan anaknya yang akan menjadi manusia serba kekurangan, benar-benar miskin.
“Kenapa anakmu ingin menjadi petani. Kenapa tidak memilih menjadi anggota dewan saja, karena semua pengeluaran mereka dibayar, mulai dari tidur sampai kentutpun dibayar oleh negara. Atau kenapa tidak menjadi pegawai hotel saja, meskipun pekerjaannya hanya mengangkat koper tamu, tetapi bisa memakai dasi dan sepatu mengkilap.”
I Wayan tidak bisa berkata apa-apa. Sesak dadanya. Jika saja dia suka merokok pasti sudah terkena serangan jantung. Tetapi karena dia hanya suka tuak saja, maka hanya perutnya saja yang mules menahan stress.
“Modal yang paling penting jika ingin menjadi petani adalah hanya satu: harus mempunyai tanah. Kalau tidak, apa yang mau ditanam. “Apakah kamu bisa membuat benih di atas beton? Apakah kamu bisa menanam padi di lantai keramik?”
Sekarang semuanya merasa terkesima. Semua tanah di Bali sudah menjadi vila, hotel, jalan, mall, alfa mart, indomaret, circle-k, hingga halaman pura pun sekarang di paving, bahkan sungai pun sekarang ditembok.
Ya, sekalipun banyak orang ingin menjadi petani, tetapi jika tanah sudah habis, apa yang bisa dilakukan?

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Poor Farmer (Tuna Tani)

What sorts of qualifications you should have when you want to be a farmer in Bali?
“First you don’t have to be embarrassed to be a farmer,” comments I Made Pici-Pici Gengsi (I Made Pretends to be Prestigious).
I Made’s comment is based on the situation today where most Balinese are embarrassed to be farmers. They prefer jobs that enable them to drive around, wear ties, with a lot of money and credit cards as well in their pockets. They don’t want to be look like a farmer; wearing dirty shirt, woven bamboo hat, with a sickle on their waists.
“Being a Balinese, you mustn’t be poor or shy. You should look like a rich man, and you must spend billions of Rupiahs for ceremonies (makarya), no matter if the money is a loan from a bank. Some Balinese even steal temple paraphernalia to afford ties, mobiles phones and buy cars on credit.”
“Being a farmer, you will have nothing. And you have to be ready to be embarrassed. I don’t promise myself to be a farmer.”
Everyone nods. One of I Wayan Dangap-Dangap (I Wayan Nod-off)’s sons wants to study in Agriculture Faculty. That’s why he needs some advice from his friends on how to be a successful farmer.
Secondly, you have to borrow money from the bank,” adds I Madé.
“The cost of fertilizer, paddy seeds and pesticide is getting higher and higher. The rice price increases as well, but the fact is that the benefit of the increase doesn’t go to farmers, but to grocers and rice importers instead.”
“When you are a farmer, you don’t get the result soon. If you plant the rice today, you will harvest in 3 months. Therefore, you have to have money to buy rice seeds, fertilizer, and pesticide first. You also have spare money for your own meals during the three months when you work in the rice field and while you are waiting for the harvest.”
No wonder many farmers become ‘loyal customers’ of village banks (LPD), local banks (BPR), and renters. An ironic situation is that farmers grow rice-paddy but they borrow money to buy rice for their meals.
“It is still lucky if you can harvest in 3 months. The fact is that, the climate has been unfavourable these days. Lots of rice paddies are died. Fail to harvest means more debt to pay.”
And to enable to pay interest of your debt then you have to borrow here and there. And this will make you have more and more debt and are getting poor.
“Being a farmer, you have to be ready living in poverty all your life.”
I Wayan looks sad when he thinks of his son who is going to be live in poverty.
“Why does your son want to be a farmer? Why not a legislative member? You know, when you are a legislative member, all of your expenses are covered by government, or why not a bell-boy? Although his job is carrying guests’ luggage, but he will wears a tie and polished shoes.”
Not a word comes out from I Wayan’s mouth. His heart is gloomy. If he smoked, he might have heart attack. He is still lucky as he just drinks palm toddy so he just has problems with his stomach due to stress.
“The most important thing when you are a farmer is to own your own lands. Of course, where would you plant your rice paddies when you didn’t have any? Can you plant rice paddies on concrete? Can you plant them on ceramic tiles?”
The problem is that there is no much land left in Bali. Most of them have changed to villas, hotels, roads, malls, Alfa Marts, Indomarets, Circle Ks, even the temple courtyards have been paved, and they even wall the river.
So no matter how strong your will is to become a farmer, but what you can do if you don’t have lands at all.