Sabtu, 11 Desember 2010

Bungklang Bungkling: Asuransi oleh Wayan Juniartha

Diambil dari kolom ‘Bungklang Bungkling’, ‘Asuransi’, di harian Bali Post, Minggu, 5 Desember 2010, oleh I Wayan Juniartha. Diterjemahkan oleh Putu Semiada


Asuransi
Dahulu kebanyakan orang Bali tidak perlu asuransi.
Maklum, jenis penyakit dahulu tidak begitu banyak, paling-paling hanya dimakan ‘leak’ (amah leak), kalau tidak halunisasi (kepangor). Sehingga pengobatannya pun tidak begitu mahal, tidak ruwet dan tidak lama. Yang dimakan leak cukup dibawa ke dukun (balian), sambil membawa sesaji (pejati) dan sumbangan (sesari), maka akan langsung mendapat obat (tamba). Kalau tidak sembuh, ya paling juga mati.
Yang berhalunisasi cukup menyatakan permintaan maaf (guru piduka) kepada para dewa (bethara) yang merasa tersinggung. Cukup memberikan sumbangan (sesari) kepada pendeta (pemangku), nanti akan dikasi air suci (tirta).
“Jika para dewa maha pengasih maka dia akan sehat, tapi jika dewanya mengidap hipertensi dan pendendam maka dia akan mati,” kata I Made Katulebo sambil terkekeh-kekeh.
Prosedur pengobatan gampang, hasilnya cepat. Sehingga mereka tidak perlu asuransi kesehatan.
Mereka juga tidak perlu asuransi kematian. Sebab kalau mati pasti akan diurus oleh warga (krama). Tidak ada yang namanya orang Bali sampai tidak mendapat kuburan. JIka keluarganya tidak punya uang untuk ngaben, maka desa akan turun tangan untuk upacara ngabennya.
“Mulai dari seseorang meninggal, sampai proses menjadi dewa pitara (dewa leluhur), semuanya sudah ada yang mengurus, jadi tidak perlu khawatir,” tambah I Made lagi.
Warga lainnya manggut-manggut saja tetapi tidak member komentar. Semua sedang memikirkan uangnya yang tidak jelas nasibnya di perusahaan asuransi yang baru saja ditutup oleh polisi.
Kalau jaman sekarang memang perlu asuransi kesehatan karena jenis penyakit semakin banyak. Mulai dari penyakit seram seperti kanker, penyakit ‘nasib buruk’ rabies (kalau bukan nasib buruk masak cuma digigit anjing bisa mati), hingga bebainan (teluh) modern, seperti yang menimpa para anggota DPR, yang senang sekali ke sana kemari jalan-jalan), hingga ‘mulut usil’ (bebainan bungut maong) yang menimpa mentri hingga presiden. Ciri-ciri penyakit ini adalah ngomong yang tidak perlu, tidak lucu, dan hanya bikin ribut saja).
“Meskipun bebainan modern tidak sampai membuat anggota DPR, mentri dan presiden tidak sampai meninggal, tetapi telah membuat rakyat depresi dan sakit hati.”
Pengobatan moden juga rumit dan mahal sekali. Dan hasilnya juga lama baru tampak.
“DI Puskesmas satu minggu, setelah itu di rumah sakit kabupaten satu minggu, kemudian dirujuk ke RSU Sanglah. Di sana juga tinggal satu minggu. Setelah satu bulan dibawa ke sana kemari, tetap saja akhirnya yang sakit itu meninggal. “
Yang sakit meninggal, yang hidup menanggung biaya rumah sakit, dokter, obat dan ambulan, yang harganya sama dengan sawah satu petak. Karena itulah perlu ikut asuransi kesehatan sekarang.
Jaman sekarang, matipun perlu biaya yang banyak. Apalagi jika ingin dikubur seperti pejabat, kuburannya dibeton dan dilapisi marmer. Apalagi jika ingin diaben seperti cokorda, memakai bade yang tinggi sekali serta diliput oleh wartawan televisi. Persoalan akan bertambah jika sewaktu hidupnya mempunyai masalah dengan warga. Jelas perlu uang sebagai upaya penyelesaian (penanjung batu). Kalau tidak, meskipun sudah mati, maka masih saja akan dipermasalahkan oleh warga.
“Oleh karena asuransi kematian sangat penting, supaya nanti kalau meninggal tidak membuat susah saudara, dan pada saat meninggal saudara-saudara kita bisa membagi-bagi uang sambil senyum-senyum.”
Karena I Made terlalu banyak bicara, warga menjadi jengkel.
“Kamu jangan terlalu banyak omong, De. Yang penting sekarang adalah bagaimana caranya supaya uang warga bisa kembali didapat dari asuransi bodong itu?” I Wayan Sugu Segul bertanya.
I Made hanya senyum-senyum saja.
“Wah, kalau urusan mengembalikan uang aku tidak ada solusinya. Tapi kalau urusan supaya tidak dibohongi lagi, aku punya asuransi, namanya ‘Asuransi Akal Sehat dan Jangan Terlalu Rakus’. Krama Bali sudah sering kena tipu, dahulu ada KKM, sekarang Balicon. Semua itu karena mereka lupa memakai akal sehat dan terlalu rakus ingin mendapatkan keuntungan.

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Insurance (Asuransi)
It is said that most Balinese did not care to have health insurance in the old days.
It was probably because there were only a few kinds of ‘serious illness’: mostly ‘illness’ was due to black magic or hallucination (kepangor) which means that the cure process didn’t cost much nor was it complicate. Anyone who suffered from black magic was brought to a balian (shaman) with a small offering (pejati) and a small fee (sesari) for the shaman.
As for those with hallucinations (kepangor); the family only needed to apologize to the gods (guru piduka) who might feel ‘insulted’. They also needed to give a small fee (sesari) to the temple priest to have the holy water (tirta) which had been ‘blessed’ by the gods (wangsuh pada).
“If the gods were All Merciful, then one would get well, but if the gods were bad tempered and revengeful, one would die”, says I Made Katulebo (I Made Scorpion) laughingly.
The process was not complicated and the result was fast: that’s why they didn’t need health insurance.
A Balinese did not need life insurance either. When he died, everything would be taken care by the banjar (village community). He would get his grave at the cemetery. If his family could not afford a cremation, the village council would be responsible for the cremation of the corpse.
“The banjar was responsible for everything, from the beginning, when one dies until one becomes ‘deified’ ancestor. So one needs not worry,” adds I Made.
Everyone nods but doesn’t give any comment. They are all thinking about what would happen to their savings if had an insurance agent whose manager was been busted by the police.
These days one needs health insurance more than before as there are more and more kinds of illness, such as cancer, rabies, etc. The strange thing is the ‘illness’ the legislative members suffer from that make them enjoy going anywhere they want for a holiday (using other people’s money). Another ‘strange illness’ is the president and ministers suffer from, that is ‘dirty mouth’ (bungut maong) which makes them talk bullshit that is not funny at all but brings more problems instead.
“Even though such an ‘illness’ does not make a legislative member, minister or the president die, it does make people sick—of their attitude—and get depressed.”
Modern medication is very complicated and expensive too: and results often take time.
“A patient might have medical treatment in a Public Health Centre (Puskesmas) for one week, then another week in a local general hospital; next he will be sent to Sanglah Hospital. He might be there for another week. After one month, he might die.”
We may describe the situation like this: the sick person (patient) may die, and his family will bear a big debt from the hospital charge, doctor’s fee, medicine and ambulance which sometimes costs one a plot of land. That’s why health insurance becomes more and more important (for Balinese).
Today, even when one dies, a large amount of money is still needed for a funeral. It will be even more costly when one wants to be buried like a high ranking official whose graves are concreted with marble veneers. And it will be even much more if one wants to have a huge cremation like the cokordas (kings), with huge cremation tower (bade), and coverage by television stations. Another cost arises when one has problems with the village during one’s life. When one dies, one’s family must pay an amount (penanjung batu) to the village council) to ‘solve’ the problem. Otherwise, his corpse will not be taken care of by the villagers.
“You need to have life insurance too, so when you die you don’t give problem to your brothers—so they can ‘share’ the funds as well, happily.”
I Made talks too much. Everyone gets upset.
“You talk too much, De. The most important thing now is how the people (krama) can get their money back from the illegal insurance company,” asks I Wayan Sigug Segul (I Wayan Always Complains to Something He doesn’t like).
I Made just smiles.
Well, in this case, I have no solution. But I know how to prevent people from putting their money in this kind of insurance company. They have to join the insurance which is called “Common Sense and Not Greedy Insurance.” Balinese have been cheated several times — there was KKM before, now Balicon — it all happens because they don’t use their common sense and are too greedy in wanting some profit without working hard.”